Here's any easy way to generalize it. If you need to build it, then you need the labs. This includes Frigate and Planet Modules with Research Access requirements. With Entrenchment there a few odd ball research subjects that don't follow this guideline. Although,
Frigate Access: All frigates requiring research must have labs to build
Planet Module Access: All modules requiring research must have labs to build
Ability Access: Vasari Deploy Star Base and Gauss Defense Missle Burst require labs
Squad Access: Advent Mine Layers require labs
Orbital Cannons (Super Weapons): Will not fire without the appropriate tier labs. The ability is tied to the research subject for these weapons.
All other research should work even if the labs are destroyed or scuttled.