as topic said
Yes. I think it's called "Faster." (Slow < Normal < Fast < Faster)
There should be speed options for a number of different things when setting up a game. I forget which ones exactly, but as examples: "research speed" and "ship speed" should be among them.
Income Rates, Build Speed, Ship Speeds, Research, Culture Speed, and Diplomacy Rate all get the 'Faster' option. Basically, everything on the right side of that screen.
It took me a couple games to get used to Faster speed, but it does help reduce the amount of time needed to play. Faster speed plus Quick Start really helps for online multiplayer. Compared to Fast speed, I think Faster has reduced game times from 1:30-1:45 on average down to 1:15-1:30.