There are two new planets, dwarf planets, which are basically asteroids with up to 50 population and more random resource extractors, and the occupation planet, which is used for the occupation victory.
Speaking of which the new victory conditions (Capital, flagship, occupation, and research) I suppose count if you don't know about them, but they got a fair bit of publicity so I wouldn't call them hidden either.
The AI does seem to be a bit better, at least to me. Early game they can be quite nasty, and will make you work for your expansion, though eventually starbases and titans do bring them back into line late game.
There are also some new item you can use for galaxy forge and custom maps, and as with any new expansion but especially with this one the new stuff will give modders more options. But whether its worth $30 dollars to trinity owners is a tough question, as much of Rebellion was inherited from Diplomacy, and its one only you can answer from everything that will be posted on this thread.