Cardassians: Weak shields, medium hull and armour,ok beam weapons, but weak torpedos. They don't field very large or powerful vessels, are faster then most, but they should have cheap ships that build quick for larger numbers and require low supply.
Klingons: Very weak shields, but the strongest hull, and very strong armor, strongest disruptors, per shot very strong torpedos, but overall lower torpedo damage per second. The vessels are very good in combat, but are not well rounded. The ships are slow and require large amounts of metal, but little crystal.
Romulans: Very high hull, but low armour, and medium shields, medium disruptors, and very powerful, but slow torpedo fire. These ships are powerful head on, but are weak against vessels to their flanks or rear. The larger ships are very large and very slow, these ships take a long time to build.
Federation: Very high shields, medium hull, but low armour, powerful beam weapons, lower power per torpedo, but higher rate of fire means they have very high damage per second values. Generally very powerfull and more well rounded than the other alpha quadrant races. The ships are very fast and highly manoeuvrable and require more crystal for their construction.
Dominion: High Shields, medium hull, and the highest armour, they have powerful beam and disruptor weapons, but only medium torpedo power. The ships are generally more powerful than the other races. The larger ships are very slow, but the smaller ships are very fast, they require more resources to build, and are slower to build and require more supply.
Based on the most common vessels fielded by each side.