Those look awesome, and i greatly welcome those changes as i don't particularly care for the current vanilla icons.
I like the intensity of the triangle and diamond shaped icons much better than the circle icons. Other than that, they all look great.
I like them too. My only concern is if anyone finds the intensity distracting or overwhelming where clarity of shape is concerned. These are to be referenced at a glance and all.
As for colors and shapes for specificity, i like what you have with the Triangles for hazardous types, possibly have them go from there down depending on how harsh the terrain is? Such as circles for calmer terrain (terran, paradise, etc.) and and the diamonds for just harsh terrain (Ice, Forest, Desert, etc.)
My original thought was circle for fairly average terrain types (Forest, Terran, Savannah). Then I would use triangles for harsh environments involving heat or lack of air (barren, volcanic, toxic). And diamonds for predominantly fluid atmospheres (Ice, Oceanic, Paradise). Some are middle grounds (like Swamp) and so I picked based on who was short on family members. The patterns say a little more sometimes. Barren, Desert and Oceanic have a lack of characteristics, so I gave them the simple shape alone in the center. Toxic, Swamp, and Forest have the most hidden dangers, so they got the core, inner lines, and broken outlines.
Or are you trying to make them link with research types? cause that's where i'd see it getting messy and really needing to think about the shape-planet relationship, making it harder to just glance at the icon to know the planet type. That's from a user standpoint, just giving that little input.
Haven't gone that route yet, but so far it's pretty up in the air who likes what. I've seen suggestions for research based and wrote above how that would group a few. Ryat also had the idea of having shared colors for similar types and then completely different shapes for each. That would probably reduce the need for me doing the internal pattern, not that it matters much since I have the shapes saved on Alphas.