Raid timers are three functions.
You can follow them back from the added pirate structures such as PLANETMODULEPIRATEORBITALCOMMAND structures, and the extra race named structures, such as PLANETMODULE_HODORBITALGAUSSDEFENSE.
First, an initial lock.
They'll be the ability with Lock in the name.
In each chain, there is a BuffWhateverLockSet file. The finish timer on this is how long after game start the accompanying spawn abilities will begin firing.
Second, the rate at which the ability fires.
The primary raids are following the convention AbilitySpawnWhatever, HoD is equally aptly named. Simply change the cooldownTime as desired. AbilitySpawnWhateverSet just puts the system in place, don't adjust it.
Third, successive attacks on the same target.
The primary raids function based on the finish condition in the file called by the spawn ability, which will be named BuffSpawnWhateverTrigger. Adjust same as the initial lock to change the frequency of successive attacks allowed.
There are pirate versions as well for these primary raids, that fire half as often, and are, other than the spawning ability file, using files you'll have already adjusted for the normal versions. The spawn abilities don't actually place the spawn files, they actually remove them, which is how the the pirates spawn ships owned by other races, I was being clever.
HoD spawns work a little differently for this, they all call the same file(another clever moment), BuffUniversalLock. Adjusting how long it lasts is done from an instant action in the specific spawn files, named BuffHoDSpawn1 through 3. To change, adjust the entry for delay in the following.