You take a light particle (in this case) and then take the quantum information that identifies that particular particle of light--call it a vibration--and place another particle of light near it. You mix them until both particles are resonating exactly the same--which makes them into identical particles and then you take one of those particles across the room and make changes in the original. The particles are what scientests call "entangled"--each having the same information.
This is the sort of experiment that's been done successfully before.
Now they take a beam of light and shine it across the room to a fiber optic conduit or some sort of light storage medium and then turn off (destroy) the source of the light. On the other side of the room, the original light particles still exist and behave exactly like the original even though the original was destroyed.
They need this for quantum computers. Its like RAM memory sort of. Information is written, used and then overwritten for new information--but while still stored on the computer.
Sort of like your RAM and CPU do all sorts of processes which create a result and then that result can be saved to your hard drive.
They need light particles for quantum computing because quantum particles (qbits, etc.) are easily disturbed and interfered with and hard to see and read results from. A wire has impedance and molecular and atomic irregularities that would basically make quantum information too interfered with to be useful.
By being able to pass beams of light, no wires needed and by being able to turn them on and off while still saving them to a form of memory means you have the building blocks for quantum computers.
A lot more to it but this is a really dumbed down analogy. I've been reading on it for years and it still is near incomprehensible to me. As a comfort, Einstein had problems getting it too when it was first explained to him. That's where his, "God doesn't play dice with the universe!" quote came from.
This experiment used in part what Einstein defined as "spooky action at a distance".
Regarding the Heisenberg principle--it still stands. One day we might be able to get around it but it can't be violated. The same as nothing can acelerate to the speed of light but there are ways to go faster than it. Ukrainian scientists have actually taken a photo of the "electron cloud" around a carbon atom and it is just that--a cloud. All the places an electron could possibly be exist simultaneously and instead of seeing "an electron" you see a fuzzy cloud of their possible positions. It's enough to make you mad.
Here's Wikipedia's summary of the "double slit light experiment"...
In between times (from the light source across the distance to the double slot blind) it (the light particle) is completely out of sensible interaction with the things of our universe, out of sensible interaction with the macro world. What is going on in the apparatus is something that is not known.
It is perhaps not so astounding that one knows nothing about what a light particle is doing between the time it is emitted from the sun and the time it triggers a reaction in one's body, but the remarkable consequence discovered by this experiment is that anything that one does to try to locate a photon between the emitter and the detection screen will change the results of the experiment in a way that everyday experience would not lead one to expect.
If, for instance, any device is used in any way that can determine whether a particle has passed through one slit or the other, the interference pattern formerly produced will then disappear.
In layman's terms: If you watch the experiment and try to observe the light between the source and the target, it makes the light behave differently when it reaches the target. Go figure.