AI fleets without survey modules have targeted and taken the red precursor anomalies without damage in my current 1.01 game.
I accidentally found a way make them regret trying to take those anomalies. I wanted to see what kind of enemy was guarding them, so I attacked one with a tiny, armed, non-survey ship. It is possible for the AI and you to do that.
When I made the attack, my ship was easily destroyed, and it caused the defenders to be separate from the anomaly. They just sat there on the anomaly doing nothing but waiting. You can try it if you want to see it happen.
Much later an AI fleet attacked the defenders. I don't know if it was trying to survey the anomaly or just trying to attack the defenders. Anybody was able to just attack the defenders. All I saw was only one AI ship survive the battle, and it didn't have a survey pod. The huge pirate ship was the only defender left, but it still had about half of its hit points. The next turn the surviving ship, a command ship, attacked. Both ships survived, but the command ship only had 4 hp left. It then left. The defending ship had about 20 hp left. I was able to easily defeat it.
It may be a good idea to send a cheap, tiny, armed ship to attack each red anomaly to separate the defenders from the anomaly. That way the AI will have to attack the defenders and suffer the consequences. The huge defender is very, very powerful and will destroy all but the most powerful AI ships/fleets. That should even things out.